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Action Plan 
for Cercocebus & Mandrillus


Mangadrills is the primate clade comprising of species within Cercocebus and Mandrillus genera and consists of nine species of African monkeys. 


There are seven Cercocebus species:





    Tana River Mangabey          Red-capped Mangabey                   Sooty Mangabey                     Sanje River Mangabey

    (Cercocebus galeritus)         (Cercocebus torquatus)                  (Cercocebus atys)                       (Cercocebus sanjei)


                   White-naped Mangabey                Golden-bellied Mangabey                           Agile Mangabey

                    (Cercocebus lunulatus)                 (Cercocebus chrysogaster)                        (Cercocebus agilis)  


There are two Mandrillus species (including two drill subspecies):  











                                                      Mandrill                                                         Drill                      

                                             (Mandrillus sphinx)                        (Mandrillus leucophaeus leucophaeus)

                                                                                                     (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis)  

Together, these species represent some of the least studied, and hence least known, of the Old World Primates.  Although they have a wide range across Africa, extending from the Upper Guinean forests of Senegal in  the  west to  the  Tana  River Delta  in Kenya, they are also some  of the  most  threatened taxa.  In  2008, the  while  golden-bellied  mangabey was considered Data Deficient by the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, while four other Cercocebus and both  Mandrillus  species were either assigned to Endangered or Vulnerable categories.  Given the limited knowledge and threatened conservation status of most of these species, there is an urgent need for a collaborative,  regional-wide approach  to catalyse and facilitate efforts to ensure the protection of mangadrills and their habitats.

In 2018, in response,  Bristol Zoological Society, the West African Primate Conservation Action and the University of the West of England teamed up to spearhead the development of an Action 

Plan to:


1.  Increase stakeholder engagement in range countries across all levels of society.  

As such, we aim to: 

a) encourage mentoring and capacity building for conservation and research among range country nationals; 

b) support education of women and family planning; 

c) increase conservation education among local communities living on forest boundaries and urban dwellers;

d) promote effective sustainable livelihoods for communities living alongside mangadrill populations.

2. Reduce our existing knowledge gap on mangadrills.

In particular, we feel it imperative to: 

(a) conduct surveys in order to establish reliable distribution and population density profiles;

(b) carry out more comprehensive genetic studies to better clarify the taxonomic and evolutionary relationships between populations.

3. Raising profile for Cercocebus and Mandrillus.  

Given the obscurity of these species among the general public, particularly among range country inhabitants, it is a priority to raise the profile of these animals.

In June 2019, WAPCA & The Wildlife Division of the Forestry Commission of Ghana hosted a three-day workshop with Species Champions and Range Experts to discuss and formalise the Plan.

Group photo.jpeg

                               Mangadrills Group Photo                            Mangadrills Workshop, Ghana 2019

Motivated by a successful workshop all those involved are working hard to finalise the Plan, ready to present at the IPS Congress in 2020.

Click HERE for our article published in African Primates

Click HERE for our Press Release

For further information contact:

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